The purpose of a PWM controller is to limit/restrict the amps flowing into the HHO generator.
There are two parameters to consider:
– the intended current necessary to operate the generator (consult the amps chart)
– The amperage load the PWM is designed to handle. The load is the unrestricted, free flowing current the generator receives from the battery
A PWM turns the generator on and off to achieve an average operational current.
A high output generator is able to consume 100 amps of current. The PWM will do its best to average and limit the current to your set point of 10 amps. It will turn the generator on and off to create the average of 10 amps.
Each PWM controller has a load limitation. If the load specification is less than the load, the controller will be destroyed.
The use of a fuse will NOT protect the PWM. The reaction time of a fuse to current spikes and pulses is much slower. A very fast pulse of 100 amps may not blow a 10 amp fuse because it mostly reacts to the average current. It is these 100 amps pulses that burn PWMs.
1 Understand the maximum current load of the generator
2 Use the least possible amount of electrolyte. Too much electrolyte places an excessive load on the PWM, potentially causing damage.
1. The quality of ‘cool’ HHO is much better and it contains less undesirable components, such as water vapour. This results in better economy gains.
2. Cool operating generators require less maintenance and have a much longer service life.
3. When HHO generators become hot, they consume more electricity, which in turn causes the generator to continue getting hotter and conduct even more electricity. This undesirable condition is called “Thermal Runaway”. It will inevitably boil the water in the system and stop HHO production
4. To prevent this problem, every HHO installation requires a current controller. A CCPWM (Constant Current Pulse Width Modulator) is necessary to provide a fixed, stable supply of current to the generator.
A correctly selected generator of proper design, size and rating is also essential for the system to be effective.
-What is a MAP sensor and how does it affect fuel economy?
-The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor) provides the vehicle’s ECU with information about the load of the engine. In other words, how hard the driver is pressing on the accelerator pedal. An engine works harder (more load) while going up a hill than going down.
The ProTuner controller makes the vehicle think it is always driving down a hill, therefore requiring much less fuel. It also balances out all the signals of the fueling system, maintaining full engine performance and preventing the “check” engine light from illuminating.
Engine performance is maintained because HHO improves the combustion efficiency, therefore less fuel is required to achieve the same power.
-Will the water corrode the engine?
-The engine naturally processes millions of liters of air that contains large amounts of water with no problems or issues.
HHO contributes only a very insignificant amount of moisture that will not corrode the engine.
Direct from 1977 article by *NASA:
“Lean-mixture-ratio combustion in internal-combustion engines has the potential of producing low emissions and higher thermal efficiency for several reasons.
First, excess oxygen in the charge further oxidizes unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
Second, excess oxygen lowers the peak combustion temperatures, which inhibits the formation of oxides of nitrogen.
Third, the lower combustion temperatures increase the mixture specific heat ratio by decreasing the net dissociation losses.
Fourth, as the specific heat ratio increases, the cycle thermal efficiency also increases, which gives the potential for better fuel economy.”
The more efficient HHO engine has more fuel energy converted into useful mechanical energy and less into wasted thermal energy. This is apparent to the user in increased fuel economy, lower combustion temperatures and approximately 100C lower exhaust temperature.
The HHO assisted combustion ignites faster and more completely. The same amount of fuel explodes more thoroughly creating more power. This power is transferred into MECHANICAL energy and NOT HEAT.
Further, the force generated acts when it is supposed to; at the BEGINNING of the combustion stroke of the engine. NOT later when the piston is already half way down the stroke or even WORSE, while returning on the EXHAUST stroke. Residual combustion on the exhaust stroke impeded engine rotation (lowering economy) and increases exhaust temperature and shortens the life of the exhaust valves.
*NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
-Does HHO work on a hybrid car?
-Hybrid cars enjoy the same fuel economy benefits as simple gasoline or diesel powered vehicles. In hybrid vehicles the internal combustion engine runs almost all the time so savings are maximized.
The electric motor is only used during periods of inefficient driving and also to recollect otherwise wasted energy during braking.
Our system automatically turns on and off as required. During the infrequent periods (typically less than one minute) when the vehicle operates 100% on electric energy, hydrogen will be off and the economy cannot be improved.
-How to calculate the amount of Hydrogen (HHO) that a generator can produce?
-Generation of Hydrogen is based on electrolysis, which is governed by the laws of physics. This process was studied almost 200 years ago by Michael Faraday, who subsequently published “Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis”.
The laws state that an electrolysis cell, operating at a certain current (amps) will produce a known amount of HHO.
The two main considerations are the number of electrode plates and the actual ‘active’ surface area. The active area is the surface area of the plates minus the area of the gaskets.
For example, if a generator has 20 cm plates and 13 mm wide gaskets:
The plate area is 20 cm X 20 cm = 400 square cm
The active area is 17.4 cm X 17.4 cm = 303 square cm
The 303 square cm number must be used for calculations.
Michael Faraday also demonstrated that electrolysis cells can support up to 0.084 amps per square cm without overheating. This is the standard used to design a HHO generator.
Therefore, the 303 square cm generator can support up to 25.4 amps of current.
The number of plates is also very important. Too few and the generator will have poor HHO production and overheat. Too many plates and the generator may not work at all.
For 12 volt vehicles, the ideal number of plates is seven, which creates six electrolysis cells within the generator.
As a mathematical simplification of Faraday’s laws, a 7 plate generator will produce 64 ml/minute of HHO per 1 amp of current
So, the generator in our example will have a maximum output of 1.6 LPM (64 ml x 25.4 amps)
Adding HHO to an internal combustion engine, results in a faster, more complete combustion of the existing fuel. Faster and more thorough combustion means that more energy is transferred mechanically to the engine, instead of wasted heat through the exhaust. This has a positive impact not only on power and fuel economy, but also in emissions (as exemplified in the test report by *Eurofins below). The much faster flame propagation speed of hydrogen is responsible for this and is often compared to a giant “spark plug” in the engine that ignites all the combustible fuel.
In summary, vehicle emissions are mostly comprised of 5 gases (the 6th is applicable to diesel fueled engines):
1. HC – Hydro Carbons are essentially unburned particles of fuel that are passed through the entire engine, through the exhaust and into the atmosphere. This is the gas that accounts for smog in our cities. Hydrocarbons are typically reduced by 30-40%.
2. NOx – Nitrogen monoxide and additional oxides are responsible for the “acid rain” pollution that is apparent in metro areas such as Los Angeles. NOx emissions are very strongly related to combustion temperature. As combustion temperatures exceeds 1527C (2870F), oxides of nitrogen are formed, and any increases in temperature will result in substantially higher emissions. When HHO is added to the engine, the resultant cooler combustion temperature helps lower this particular nauseous gas. Reductions of 20-25% are common in diesel engines. Typical reductions in gasoline vehicles are 50%. Results as great as 95% been reported in lean burning applications such as highly tuned gasoline and natural gas engines seeking large increases in fuel economy.
3. O2 – Oxygen is NON-POLUTING and necessary for our existence. Note the significant increase of clean oxygen as measured by 5-gas analyzers.
4. CO – Carbon Monoxide. This clear, odorless yet deadly gas gets reduced in the range of 25-50%.
5. CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, responsible for the “green house” effect on our planet is typically decreased by 40-60%
6. PM – Particulate Matter is the “solid particles and liquid droplets” in the exhaust of diesel engines, more commonly referred to as “soot”. As HHO is directly responsible for a more complete combustion, this emission is drastically reduced. 70-80% reductions are commonplace, with frequent reports of 90%+.
*Eurofins is an international group of laboratories headquartered in Luxembourg, providing testing and support services to the pharmaceutical, food, environmental and consumer products industries and to governments.
-Ok, your hydrogen supplement systems are very intriguing. But why settle for an increase in your petrol economy, why not “over engineer” your car’s system and generate enough HHO to run completely on HHO gas, using no petrol at all. Is that possible?
-Creating enough HHO to act as the primary fuel for a vehicle would require extreme amounts of electrical current (much much more than the charging system could provide). Even if this were possible, energy is lost upon every conversion step, since no energy conversion can be 100% efficient.
These losses occur during the combustion process that makes mechanical energy, then the alternator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and finally, the HHO system that converts electricity into chemical energy.
This theoretical system would violate the first law of thermodynamics because not only is it a perpetual motion machine, but would need to create energy sufficient enough to power the vehicle as it travels.
-Most of CCPWMs need cooling fans. Why does your CCPWM not have a cooling fan? Is the CCPWM hot when working?
-Most PWM use a low quality FET to control the current, and it gets hot. So you get a poor design, added cost from all the heat sink, assembly cost, $0.49 very low quality computer fan, not intended for vibration and automotive use etc.
We use a proper, efficient FET that runs 5C above ambient temp. No moving parts, better performance, lower cost, higher reliability
-How are Green Source EFIEs different from the other EFIE controllers on the market?
-All other EFIEs are old technology and assume a slow input waveform from the oxygen sensors. They produce satisfactory results when given the anticipated signal which is in vehicles up to model year 2000.
Cars newer than year 2000 are equipped with much faster sensors and make these “old” digital EFIEs ineffective.
If your vehicle is less than 16 years old, you require a Green Source EFIE that is able to manipulate fast input signals and achieve fuel economy gains.
The Oxygen sensors are the heart of the fuelling system and when you cannot control them, you have no gains.
-Is it a good idea to separate Oxygen and Hydrogen in order to avoid trouble with Oxygen sensors (Lambda sensors)?
-It is a common misconception that the Oxygen in HHO is causing the Lambda sensor troubles.
In fact this very tiny amount of Oxygen makes no difference. It is the enhanced combustion due to HHO that the oxygen sensors react to.
-If I have my car on but not running will the gas build up in my car?
-If wired correctly, NO, there will be no gas build up.
Ideally you connect to a spot that is only on when the engine is running. Often this spot exists in the fuse box, or your fuel pump is wired this way. Tap into that wire.